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Stains – Discoloration or stains on pool surfaces can be a variety of colors and are often caused by metals present in the water. Scale – Scale buildup is a rough white, gray or brown deposit on pool surfaces and metal objects caused when calcium in the water drops out of solution. The Causes of Stain & Scale Stains Iron, copper and manganese are the most common metals occurring in pool water. When pH is low (below 7.2), these metals are “in solution” and will not stain pool surfaces. But when pH is raised, metals can drop “out of solution”,...